## Requirements

### Prerequisite knowledge

Prior experience setting up and running an ActionScript project based on the Stage3D API is required. Before following along with the instructions provided here, be sure to complete the previous tutorials in this series on working with Stage3D:

Additional required other products:

### User level

Intermediate

In this tutorial, you'll learn about the concept of perspective. Perspective is a fundamental topic when developing Flash projects that use 3D rendering. You'll explore how to work with the Stage3D API to render a 3D world in perspective using Stage3D. This tutorial is a part of a series on working with Stage3D and builds upon the information provided in the previous tutorials describing how to render a triangle. You'll take that sample project to the next level by rendering the 3D scene with perspective.

In the real world, we see things in a way that is called "perspective".

Perspective refers to the concept that objects that are farther away appear to be smaller than those that are closer to you. Perspective also means that if you are sitting in the middle of a straight road, you actually see the borders of the road as two converging lines.

That’s perspective. Perspective is critical in 3D projects. Without perspective, the 3D world doesn't look real.

While this may seem natural and obvious, it's important to consider that when you create a 3D rendering on a computer you are attempting to simulate a 3D world on the computer screen, which is a 2D surface.

Imagine that behind the computer screen there is a real 3D scene of sorts, and you are watching it through the "glass" of your computer screen. Using perspective, your goal is to create code that renders what gets "projected" on this "glass" of your screen as if there was this real 3D world behind the screen. The only caveat is that this 3D world is not real…it's just a mathematical simulation of a 3D world.

So, when using 3D rendering to simulate a scene in 3D and then projecting the 3D scene onto the 2D surface of your screen, the process is called perspective projection.

Begin by envisioning intuitively what you want to achieve. If an object is closer to the viewer, the object must appear to be bigger. If the object is farther away, it must appear to be smaller. Also, if an object is traveling away from the viewer, in a straight line, you want it to converge towards the center of the screen, as it moves farther off into the distance.

As you view the illustration in Figure 1, imagine that an object is positioned in your 3D scene. In the 3D world, the position of the object can be described as xW, yW, zW, referring to a 3D coordinate system with the origin in the eye-point. That’s where the object is actually positioned, in the 3D scene beyond the screen.

Figure 1. The perspective projection of a 3D object.

As the viewer watches this object on the screen, the 3D object is "projected" to a 2D position described as xP and yP, which references the 2D coordinate system of the screen (projection plane).

To put these values into a mathematical formula, I'll use a 3D coordinate system for world coordinates, where the x axis points to the right, y points up, and positive z points inside the screen. The 3D origin refers to the location of the viewer's eye. So, the glass of the screen is on a plane orthogonal (at right angles) to the z-axis, at some z that I’ll call zProj.

You can calculate the projected positions xP and yP, by dividing the world positions xW, and yW, by zW, like this:

```
xP = K1 * xW / zW
yP = K2 * yW / zW
```

K1 and K2 are constants that are derived from geometrical factors such as the aspect ratio of your projection plane (your viewport) and the "field of view" of your eye, which takes into account the degree of wide-angle vision.

You can see how this transform simulates perspective. Points near the sides of the screen get pushed toward the center as the distance from the eye (zW) increases. At the same time, points closer to the center (0,0) are much less affected by the distance from the eye and remain close to the center.

This division by z is the famous "perspective divide."

Now, consider that an object in the 3D scene is defined as a series of vertices. So, by applying this kind of transform to all vertices of geometry, you effectively ensure that the object will shrink when it's farther away from the eye point.

In the next section, you'll use this perspective projection formula into ActionScript that you can use in your Flash 3D projects.

When converting the perspective divide from a math statement into code, you'll use matrices.

When you first start, the process of working with perspective projection and matrices is tricky. A matrix transform is a linear transform: the transformed vector components are simply linear combinations of the input vector. Linear transforms only support translations, rotations, scaling, and skewing. But they don’t allow operations like the perspective divide, where a component is divided by another component.

Now, remember that three-dimensional coordinates are usually represented with four-dimensional vectors of the form (x, y, z, w), where w is usually 1. The solution to the matrix-based perspective divide issue is to use the fourth coordinate w in a creative way, by storing the zW coordinate into the w coordinate of the transformed vector.

The other components of the transformed vector are the pre-multiplied version of xP and yP by zW.

You'll use the following transform:

```
xW -> xP' = xP * zW = K1 * xW
yW -> yP' = yP * zW = K2 * yW
```

On first sight, since you are projecting to the screen that is 2D, it might seem enough to just calculate the projected coordinates for xP and yP. However the rendering pipeline cannot completely lose track of the depth (z) coordinate because it needs to depth-sort the different pixels that are rendered. The standard process involves calculating a "projected" zP (zP’) that equals zero for values of zW that are at a distance zW equal to zNear, which we define as "near clipping distance." Near clipping distance is simply the closest distance we wish to render. I'll discuss clipping in more detail later in this tutorial, but here is the formula to calculate this transformed zP' to be used for clipping:

`zW -> zP' = K3 * (zW - zNear)`

The entire transformation is definitely possible to achieve with a linear matrix transform, as the transformed vectors are a linear combination of the world vector to transform.

Next, the actual transformed xP and yP values are obtained by dividing the transformed x, y, z, components by w, like this:

```
xP = K1 * xW
yP = K2 * yW
zP = K3 * (zW - zNear) / zW
```

The calculations shown above are exactly what you need to set up the next part.

**Working with clip space and Normalized Device Coordinates**

Stage3D expects you to use a matrix in your Vertex Shader that transforms vertices to a special space:

`(x, y, z, w) = (xP', yP', zP', zW)`

With xP’, yP’, zP’ and zW defined as above, and where constants K1, K2 and K3 are chosen so that xP and yP of all visible points in the 3D world are in the range (-1, 1), and zP falls in the range (0, 1).

This means that an object falling at the right edge of the screen, once projected, will have xP = 1, and one at the left edge will have xP = -1.

This 4-dimensional space (xP’, yP’, zP’, zW) is called clip space, as it’s the area where clipping usually takes place. The (xP, yP, zP) coordinates, after the divide, with range (-1,1) (for xP and yP), and range (0, 1) (for zP) are called Normalized Device Coordinates (NDC).

Stage3D and the GPU use the data from the output of your Shader in clip space form to carry on internally with the perspective divide.

**A note on clipping**

Objects that sit on the "closest distance we want to render", at zW = zNear, get a zP equal to 0. While those that are at some distance that is defined as zW = zFar are transformed in NDC space to zP = 1.

zNear and zFar define the clipping planes. Objects falling closer than zNear will be clipped (not drawn), just like objects falling farther away than zFar. Also, objects with xP and yP outside the range (-1, 1) will be clipped.

For simplicity, I’m working with point objects here. An actual extended object can get partially clipped, as parts of it fall into view, while other parts fall outside it.

The correct values for K1, K2 and K3 to use to get the NDC ranges for xP, yP, zP mentioned above are:

```
K1 = zProj / aspect
K2 = zProj
K3 = zFar / (zFar – zNear)
```

In this example, aspect is the viewport aspect ratio.

It’s easy to verify that these values, for those world points (xW, yW, zW) that fall on the projection plane (i.e. zW = zProj), the NDC ranges

`xP = (-1, 1), yP = (-1, 1)`

and `zP = (0, 1) `

correspond to world ranges equal to `xW = (-aspect, aspect) and yW = (-1, 1)`

. World points at different distances zW will scale accordingly with the perspective projection equation. Similarly, the zP range of (0, 1) corresponds to the world range `zW = (zNear, zFar)`

.It is usually more convenient to specify these constants in terms of fov (field of view) angle (the angle that defines the eye's degree of wide-angle vision), instead of using the zProj distance. Figure 2 illustrates both

`fov`

and zProj defined in a side view of the projection reference system.Figure 2. A side view of the projection reference system.

Using this strategy for calculating the value of zProj:

`zProj = 1 / tg (fov/2)`

The scaling constants become:

```
K1 = 1 / (aspect*tg(fov/2))
K2 = 1 / tg(fov/2)
K3 = zFar / (zFar – zNear)
```

You can use a simple extension of the Matrix3D class developed by Adobe to help with this process. Download the PerspectiveMatrix3D class; it's close to the official version at the time of this writing.

After downloading the package, review the PerspectiveMatrix3D class. It implements a few simple functions that create the perspective matrix transform needed for this project, with the correct values for the constants K1, K2 and K3:

```
PerspectiveMatrix3D::perspectiveFieldOfViewLH
PerspectiveMatrix3D::perspectiveFieldOfViewRH
```

Throughout this tutorial, I’ve been using a world coordinate system where x points to the right, y points up, and positive z enters the screen, which is a left handed coordinate system. Therefore I’ll use the LH flavor of the matrix function.

Using PerspectiveMatrix3D, the process of creating a perspective matrix that's suitable for Stage3D is very simple because it just requires you to define a few parameters. For example you could use the code below to set the values of the required variables:

```
var aspect:Number = 4/3;
var zNear:Number = 0.1;
var zFar:Number = 1000;
var fov:Number = 45*Math.PI/180;
var projectionTransform:PerspectiveMatrix3D = new PerspectiveMatrix3D();
projectionTransform.perspectiveFieldOfViewLH(fov, aspect, zNear, zFar);
```

As described above, zNear and zFar are the near and far clipping planes respectively; aspect is the aspect ratio and fov is the field of view angle.

In this section you'll use this matrix to create a simple update to the sample application I had provided in my previous Developer Center tutorial titled: Hello Triangle. If you haven't already completed the tutorials in the series prior to this one, please follow along with the instructions in that tutorial to learn how to build the basis of the sample project you'll extend in the steps below.

In this example, instead of working with a triangle, you'll render a rectangle so that it’s easier to notice the effect of perspective.

Begin by appending (pre-multiplying) the projection matrix to the queue of matrix transforms that are used to position and rotate the object. The code below also adds a different spin to the rotations, so that the perspective is visible.

```
var m:Matrix3D = new Matrix3D();
m.appendRotation(getTimer()/30, Vector3D.Y_AXIS);
m.appendRotation(getTimer()/10, Vector3D.X_AXIS);
m.appendTranslation(0, 0, 2);
m.append(projectionTransform);
```

Here is the entire code sample used in the perspective projection demo application:

```
public class PerspectiveProjection extends Sprite
{
[Embed( source = "RockSmooth.jpg" )]
protected const TextureBitmap:Class;
protected var context3D:Context3D;
protected var vertexbuffer:VertexBuffer3D;
protected var indexBuffer:IndexBuffer3D;
protected var program:Program3D;
protected var texture:Texture;
protected var projectionTransform:PerspectiveMatrix3D;
public function PerspectiveProjection()
{
stage.stage3Ds[0].addEventListener( Event.CONTEXT3D_CREATE, initMolehill );
stage.stage3Ds[0].requestContext3D();
stage.scaleMode = StageScaleMode.NO_SCALE;
stage.align = StageAlign.TOP_LEFT;
addEventListener(Event.ENTER_FRAME, onRender);
}
protected function initMolehill(e:Event):void
{
context3D = stage.stage3Ds[0].context3D;
context3D.configureBackBuffer(800, 600, 1, true);
var vertices:Vector.<Number> = Vector.<Number>([
-0.3,-0.3,0, 0, 0, // x, y, z, u, v
-0.3, 0.3, 0, 0, 1,
0.3, 0.3, 0, 1, 1,
0.3, -0.3, 0, 1, 0]);
// 4 vertices, of 5 Numbers each
vertexbuffer = context3D.createVertexBuffer(4, 5);
// offset 0, 4 vertices
vertexbuffer.uploadFromVector(vertices, 0, 4);
// total of 6 indices. 2 triangles by 3 vertices each
indexBuffer = context3D.createIndexBuffer(6);
// offset 0, count 6
indexBuffer.uploadFromVector (Vector.<uint>([0, 1, 2, 2, 3, 0]), 0, 6);
var bitmap:Bitmap = new TextureBitmap();
texture = context3D.createTexture(bitmap.bitmapData.width, bitmap.bitmapData.height, Context3DTextureFormat.BGRA, false);
texture.uploadFromBitmapData(bitmap.bitmapData);
var vertexShaderAssembler : AGALMiniAssembler = new AGALMiniAssembler();
vertexShaderAssembler.assemble( Context3DProgramType.VERTEX,
"m44 op, va0, vc0\n" + // pos to clipspace
"mov v0, va1" // copy uv
);
var fragmentShaderAssembler : AGALMiniAssembler= new AGALMiniAssembler();
fragmentShaderAssembler.assemble( Context3DProgramType.FRAGMENT,
"tex ft1, v0, fs0 <2d,linear,nomip>\n" +
"mov oc, ft1"
);
program = context3D.createProgram();
program.upload( vertexShaderAssembler.agalcode, fragmentShaderAssembler.agalcode);
projectionTransform = new PerspectiveMatrix3D();
var aspect:Number = 4/3;
var zNear:Number = 0.1;
var zFar:Number = 1000;
var fov:Number = 45*Math.PI/180;
projectionTransform.perspectiveFieldOfViewLH(fov, aspect, zNear, zFar);
}
protected function onRender(e:Event):void
{
if ( !context3D )
return;
context3D.clear ( 1, 1, 1, 1 );
// vertex position to attribute register 0
context3D.setVertexBufferAt (0, vertexbuffer, 0, Context3DVertexBufferFormat.FLOAT_3);
// uv coordinates to attribute register 1
context3D.setVertexBufferAt(1, vertexbuffer, 3, Context3DVertexBufferFormat.FLOAT_2);
// assign texture to texture sampler 0
context3D.setTextureAt(0, texture);
// assign shader program
context3D.setProgram(program);
var m:Matrix3D = new Matrix3D();
m.appendRotation(getTimer()/30, Vector3D.Y_AXIS);
m.appendRotation(getTimer()/10, Vector3D.X_AXIS);
m.appendTranslation(0, 0, 2);
m.append(projectionTransform);
context3D.setProgramConstantsFromMatrix(Context3DProgramType.VERTEX, 0, m, true);
context3D.drawTriangles(indexBuffer);
context3D.present();
}
}
```

In this tutorial, you learned about one of the most important topics of 3d rendering: perspective projection. Now that you have a better understanding of what perspective is and how to implement it within Stage3D, proceed to the next tutorial in the series. In the next tutorial in the series, you'll learn how to work with 3D Cameras and see how to implement a point of view that moves around in the 3D scene. The remaining tutorials in the series include:

6. Working with 3D cameras

7. Mipmapping for smoother textures in Stage3D

6. Working with 3D cameras

7. Mipmapping for smoother textures in Stage3D

For more information on perspective projection and 3D related math, I recommend a great book by James M. Van Verth and Lars M. Bishop called "Essential Mathematics for Games and Interactive Applications."