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The four architectures and encoding into long-term memory

The receptive architecture runs the risk of ineffective encoding of new information into long-term memory. This is because it leaves the encoding up to the initiative of the learner since few opportunities for formal practice are provided. In addition, if information overloads learners, working memory has no capacity left to rehearse the new information. Both the directive and guided discovery architectures provide many opportunities for rehearsal. If the directive interactions are elaborative, good encoding should result. Since the learner is solving job-realistic problems, the guided discovery should provide an excellent encoding environment. The exploratory environment will support encoding to the extent that good elaborative practices are included and that learners take advantage of them. In summary, the best encoding opportunities in rank order are explicitly provided by guided discovery, directive, exploratory, and receptive architectures.

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