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Macromedia Authorware Support Center - Basics
Summary of instructional methods

Method Description
Keep it simple Keep cognitive load low with simple screen designs and sparing use of text, sound, motion, and color.
Be congruent with modalities To avoid dividing the learner's attention, use various media elements such as text, graphics, and sound to present reinforcing—rather than disparate—messages.
Cueing Use color, arrows, shading, and sound—sparingly—to direct the learner's attention to important parts of the message.
Adjunct memory support Keep visible on the screen the information the learner needs to refer to during the instruction, especially to respond to questions.
Audio/Visual Use visual displays explained by audio to maximize working memory resources
Frequent rehearsal Clear working memory by encouraging frequent rehearsal, which will move information into long-term memory.
Concrete words and reinforcing modes Encourage dual-encoding through the use of concrete words and different modes—for example, text, graphics, and sound—to reinforce your messages.
Promote elaborative rehearsal Avoid rote repetition in your interactions. Instead, design interactions that match job activities and skills.
High-fidelity simulations for procedural skills For procedural skills, encourage encoding specificity through the use of high-fidelity simulation practice. Simulations should replicate the actual job environment as closely as possible.
Cognitive apprenticeships to teach problem-solving skills Situated learning, guided discovery, naturalistic feedback, learning from errors, coaching, and saving and replaying.

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